Sunlight is made up of photons, or particles of solar energy. Photons contain various amounts of energy, corresponding to the different wavelengths of the solar spectrum. When photons strike a PV cell, they may be reflected or absorbed, or they may pass right through. Only the absorbed photons generate electricity. When this happens, the energy of the photon is transferred to an electron in an atom of the PV cell (which is actually a semiconductor).
With its newfound energy, the electron escapes from its normal position in an atom of the semiconductor material and becomes part of the current in an electrical circuit.: When certain semiconducting materials, such as certain kinds of silicon, are exposed to sunlight, they release small amounts of electricity. This process is known as the photoelectric effect. The photoelectric effect refers to the emission, or ejection, of electrons from the surface of a metal in response to light. It is the basic physical process in which a solar electric or photovoltaic, means electricity from light -photo = light, voltaic = electricity, cell converts sunlight to electricity.
Furthermore, solar panel, which is also known as a module, features photovoltaic cells that are made of silicon. These cells convert the incoming sunlight into electricity rather than heat. The solar photovoltaic cells feature a positive and a negative film of silicon that are located beneath a thin slice of glass. As the photons, carries energy proportional to the radiation frequency, but has zero rest mass, of the sunlight hit these silicon cells directly, they knock the electrons off the silicon. The generated free electrons from the sunlight are preferentially attracted to the one side of the silicon cell, which generates an electric voltage that can be collected and channeled. This electric voltage is gathered by wiring the individual solar panels together in series to form a solar photovoltaic array. The installation process of the solar is very simple and its depend on the size of the solar panel as well as areas where the solar panel will be installed. Further, the multiple strings of solar photovoltaic (PV) array cables abolish in one electrical box, called a fused array combiner. Contained within the combiner box is fuses designed to protect the individual modular cables, as well as the connections that deliver power to the inverter. The generated electricity produced at this stage is DC (direct current) and must be converted to AC (alternating current) suitable for use in your home or business.
The Grid-connected systems are used for homes, public facilities such as schools and hospitals, and commercial facilities such as offices and shopping centers. Electricity generated during the daytime can be used right away, and in some cases surplus electricity can be sold to the utility power company. If the system doesn’t generate enough electricity, or generates none at all during the rainy season or on a cloudy day or at night, then electricity is purchased from the utility power company. Power production levels and surplus selling can be checked in real time on a monitor, an effective way to gauge daily energy consumption.